Mathematical Analysis By SC Malik And Savita Arora

 

Mathematical Analysis By SC Malik And Savita Arora

Mathematical Analysis By SC Malik And Savita Arora pdf Download 


Mathematical Analysis By SC Malik And Savita Arora pdf


In mathematics, real analysis is the branch of mathematical analysis that studies the behavior of real numbers, sequences and series of real numbers, and real functions.[1] Some particular properties of real-valued sequences and functions that real analysis studies include convergence, limits, continuity, smoothness, differentiability and integrability.

The theorems of real analysis rely on the properties of the real number system, which must be established. The real number system consists of an uncountable set ({\displaystyle \mathbb {R} }), together with two binary operations denoted + and ⋅, and an order denoted <. The operations make the real numbers a field, and, along with the order, an ordered field. The real number system is the unique complete ordered field, in the sense that any other complete ordered field is isomorphic to it. Intuitively, completeness means that there are no 'gaps' in the real numbers. This property distinguishes the real numbers from other ordered fields and is critical to the proof of several key properties of functions of the real numbers. The completeness of the reals is often conveniently expressed as the least upper bound property

Roughly speaking, a limit is the value that a function or a sequence "approaches" as the input or index approaches some value.(when addressing the behavior of a function or sequence as the variable increases or decreases without bound.) The idea of a limit is fundamental to calculus (and mathematical analysis in general) and its formal definition is used in turn to define notions like continuity, derivatives, and integrals. (In fact, the study of limiting behavior has been used as a characteristic that distinguishes calculus and mathematical analysis from other branches of mathematics.)
The concept of limit was informally introduced for functions by Newton and Leibniz, at the end of the 17th century, for building infinitesimal calculus. For sequences, the concept was introduced by Cauchy, and made rigorous, at the end of the 19th century by Bolzano and Weierstrass, who gave the modern ε-δ definition, which follows.



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